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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 69-71

Prediction of cardiovascular risk among healthcare professionals using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score in a tertiary care hospital in Aurangabad, India


Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission08-Sep-2021
Date of Decision13-Sep-2021
Date of Acceptance25-Oct-2021
Date of Web Publication08-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rohit Manoj Jacob
Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College, N6 CIDCO, Aurangabad - 431 003, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ACCJ.ACCJ_18_21

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  Abstract 


Background: The current scenario of long working hours, sedentary lifestyle, and occupational stress has led to an increased prevalence of noncommunicable risk factors among the medical fraternity. Hence, determining the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become highly essential to curb the predisposing factors leading to it. Objectives: The objectives of the study are to cluster the cardiovascular risk factors among healthcare professionals and to estimate the ASCVD Risk Score among healthcare professionals of a teaching hospital in Aurangabad. Methods: A population of 200 subjects were considered for the study. Cardiovascular risk factors such as age, race, gender, diabetes mellitus, antihypertensive medications, dyslipidemia, alcohol consumption, smoking, family history of hypertension, physical activity, waist circumference (central obesity), obesity, and stress/mental status were studied. Assessing each of its prevalence to predict the risk of cardiovascular disease using ASCVD Risk Score formed the crux of the study. Results: On assessing the risk factors in all subjects, it was found that type 2 diabetes mellitus (34.6%), dyslipidemia (32%), and hypertension (22.09%) were predominantly seen among majority of the healthcare professionals. The average lifetime ASCVD Score among healthcare professionals was 57.8%. It was observed that as age advances, the risk of developing an ASCVD also increased. Conclusion: Utilizing a simple tool such as the ASCVD Risk Score Calculator can not only predict the risk of ASCVD but can also help initiate preventive strategies and prolong the life of a medico!

Keywords: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension


How to cite this article:
Naik MR, Jacob RM, Reddy SP. Prediction of cardiovascular risk among healthcare professionals using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score in a tertiary care hospital in Aurangabad, India. Ann Clin Cardiol 2021;3:69-71

How to cite this URL:
Naik MR, Jacob RM, Reddy SP. Prediction of cardiovascular risk among healthcare professionals using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score in a tertiary care hospital in Aurangabad, India. Ann Clin Cardiol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Jul 2];3:69-71. Available from: http://www.onlineacc.org/text.asp?2021/3/2/69/336218




  Introduction Top


Long working hours, occupational stress, sedentary work habits, patient load because of over population, and hectic lifestyle have all put a grave burden on the doctors and nurses, thus leading to unhealthy lifestyle with habits of drinking, smoking, eating junk foods, and lack of physical exercise.[1] This current scenario has led to an increased prevalence of noncommunicable risk factors among the medical fraternity. In a study by Dickinson and Welker, the leading cause of death among physicians worldwide is cardiovascular disease (CVD), with the most important risk factor being hypertension.[2]

Hence, determining the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become highly essential to curb the predisposing factors leading to it. This led to the formulation of the ASCVD Risk Score.

The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among the medical fraternity, using ASCVD Risk Score, of a teaching hospital in Aurangabad.

The objectives of the study were to analyze the lifestyle trend among healthcare professionals of a teaching hospital in Aurangabad, to cluster the cardiovascular risk factors among healthcare professionals of a teaching hospital in Aurangabad, and to estimate the ASCVD Risk Score among healthcare professionals of a teaching hospital in Aurangabad.


  Methods Top


The study was a cross-sectional hospital-based observational study conducted among the doctors and nurses of MGM Medical College and Hospital, Aurangabad. A population of 200 subjects was considered for the study. The study was initiated after obtaining permission from the institutional ethics committee. The study was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021.

Cardiovascular risk factors such as age, race, gender, diabetes mellitus, antihypertensive medications, dyslipidemia, alcohol consumption, smoking, family history of hypertension, physical activity, waist circumference (central obesity), obesity, and stress/mental status were studied. Assessing each of its prevalence to predict the risk of CVD using ASCVD Risk Score formed the crux of the study.

Statistical analysis would be done using SPSS Software (IBM SPSS Software 2.0 (2015), Bangalore, Karnataka). All the statistical tests at P < 0.05 would be considered statistically significant.


  Results Top


Out of 200 subjects, 45 belonged to the age group of 21–30 years, 56 belonged to the age group of 31–40 years, 58 belonged to the age group of 41–50 years, and 42 to the age group of 51 years and above [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Age and gender distribution

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Out of 200 subjects, 124 (62%) were doctors and 76 (38%) were nurses.

On assessing the risk factors in all subjects, it was found that type 2 diabetes mellitus (34.6%), dyslipidemia (32%), and hypertension (22.09%) were predominantly seen among majority of the healthcare professionals [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Single risk factor distribution among doctors and nurses

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About 42 healthcare professionals had more than one risk factor with 32% of them having hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, 23% of them having family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) and dyslipidemia, 17% of them having diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, 14% of them having hypertension and family history of CAD, 6.7% of them having hypertension and dyslipidemia, 5% of them having smoking and family history of CAD, and a mere 2.3% having obesity and smoking as the common risk factors.

It was observed that out of 74 subjects who had hypertension, only 24 (32.4%) of them were on regular antihypertensive treatment and the rest were either uncontrolled hypertensives. It was clearly evident that healthcare professionals do not give priority to their own health when it comes to serving humanity selflessly.

Out of 62 subjects having dyslipidemia, 42 (67.7%) of them had raised triglyceride levels and raised serum cholesterol levels and the rest were on treatment with statins. Out of 58 subjects having type 2 diabetes mellitus, 51 (87.9%) were on regular treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin, yet it was found that 76.8% of them had raised blood sugar levels (fasting or postprandial) due to lack of routine periodic monitoring.

With the above risk factor record, taken in detail, the lifetime ASCVD Risk was calculated for all subjects and 10-year ASCVD Risk was calculated for subjects in the age group of 41 years and above [Figure 3].
Figure 3: 10-year ASCVD Risk Categorization among doctors and nurses

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It was observed consistently that the ASCVD Risk was always higher among doctors than among nurses.

The average lifetime ASCVD Score among healthcare professionals was found to be 57.8%. It was observed that as the age advances, the risk of developing an ASCVD also increased, as shown [Table 1].
Table 1: Average lifetime atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease score among doctors and nurses of different age groups and its significance

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Estimating the 10-year ASCVD Risk Score has helped in predicting and managing the risk of ASCVD in healthcare professionals accordingly as per the American Heart Association Protocol.


  Discussion Top


Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the risk of ASCVD among different population. Healthcare professionals have a long duration of work with the stress of handling life-threatening situations, which makes them even more prone to developing an ASCVD.

A study among 250 doctors and nurses in Tamil Nadu stated a 31.2% high risk of CVD among the healthcare providers. This study also demonstrated the fact that as age advances, the risk of CVD also increases as suggested similar to our study.[3]

Various studies suggest a significant association between risk factors predisposing to CVDs. Gopal et al. reported that 25.3% of physical inactive candidates were at high risk of developing CVDs[4] and that females had higher physical inactivity risk, but it was not statistically significant. However, our study demonstrated that the risk of ASCVD was higher among males than females, especially in the age group of 41–50 years and 51 years and above probably due to the various associated risk factors, such as smoking and family history of CAD, which was more commonly seen among males than females.

Our study demonstrated dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and family history of CAD to be the most predominant risk factors predisposing to CVDs. However, many other confounding factors do play a role in the causation of ASCVD. A detailed assessment may be required to assess each of those risk factors and its effect on the health of all individuals.


  Conclusion Top


Practicing doctors and nurses form an important segment of the public healthcare sector. However, the health quotient of these public health providers has always been neglected while providing the best possible patient care. Being aware of lifestyle disorders and advising the perfect choice of treatment are not just sufficient for patient care, but practicing themselves is also necessary to maintain a balance between awareness and management.

Utilizing a simple tool such as the ASCVD Risk Score Calculator can not only predict the risk of ASCVD but can also help initiate preventive strategies and prolong the life of a medico!

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Purohit M, Varma K. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases in doctors. Int J Innov Res Rev 2016;4:54-61.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dickinson FG, Welker EL. The leading causes of death among physicians. J Am Med Assoc 1949;139:1129-31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Hegde SK, Vijayakrishnan G, Sasankh AK, Venkateswaran S, Parasuraman G. Lifestyle-associated risk for cardiovascular diseases among doctors and nurses working in a medical college hospital in Tamil Nadu, India. J Family Med Prim Care 2016;5:281-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.
Gopal B, Malaji S, Kora SA. A study on cardiovascular risk factor among care providers in a tertiary care centre in Southern India. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2012;14:15.  Back to cited text no. 4
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

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